PRIME stands for “Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics”.

PRIME is a spreadsheet-based tool, designed to give users an idea of:

  • The magnitude of the burden of cervical cancer
  • The impact of introducing HPV vaccination for girls prior to sexual debut
  • Healthcare costs incurred as a result of cervical cancer treatment
  • Costs associated with vaccination
  • Long-term savings which may result from a vaccination program

The tool is intended for use by non-modeller users such as country program managers and planners and decision makers in low- and middle income countries. It was created by scientists at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in London and Université Laval in Quebec in conjunction with the World Health Organization in Geneva.[1] It has been appraised by WHO’s expert committee on modelling, IVIR-AC. It gives reliable, validated estimates for impact and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination of adolescent girls prior to sexual debut.

Please note that the PRIME Tool is not suitable for more complex scenarios such as:

  • Assessing herd immunity (indirect protection for non-vaccinees as a result of reduced circulation of the virus)
  • The effect of catch-up campaigns to vaccinate older girls/women
  • Male vaccination
  • Comparison between vaccines with different valencies
  • Assessing vaccine impact on cervical screening programmes

The user manual introduces the tool and explains how to use it, but assumes some familiarity with spreadsheet software – read online or download as a pdf.

Further information and advice on using PRIME can be obtained by contacting vaccineresearch@who.int

Get the PRIME Tool >


PRIME was developed by Mark Jit, Marc Brisson, Allison Portnoy and Raymond Hutubessy.

The PRIME website and manual were developed by Morag Hickman in collaboration with Mark Jit and Raymond Hutubessy.

We thank Hoang van Minh, Patricia Rasoamihanta and Anais Colombini for providing feedback on the pilot version of PRIME.

We thank the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for their financial support.


The named authors [or editors as appropriate] alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication.

The results calculated with this tool depend on the assumptions and values entered by its users. They do not represent official results from WHO and the users of the tool alone are responsible for the results they generate with it.

The World Health Organization (WHO) does not warrant or represent that the information in this tool is free from errors or omissions or is suitable for your intended use.

This disclaimer applies to all information within this tool, including but not limited to example workbooks, workbook content, user manuals, training, and resources.

WHO recommends that you seek independent advice before relying upon or acting on any information in this tool. WHO accepts no responsibility for any loss, damage, cost or expense (whether direct or indirect) incurred by you as a result of any error, omission or misrepresentation in any information in this tool.